NORCAP is a global provider of expertise to the humanitarian, development and peacebuilding sectors. Governments must go beyond punitive measures and address the social and economic roots of gang culture, tackle extortion schemes and invest in communities. By 2004 MS-13 had spread to about “42 states and Central America” (Wolf, 66). Chronic violence, insecurity and now COVID-related restrictions have put tens of thousands of Central Americans at risk of increased hardship and even death, the … Nearly one in five Hondurans, Salvadorians and Guatemalans live on less than USD 1.90 a day. Furthermore, the policy of deporting large numbers of young Central Americans in the 1990s and 2000s, many of them already gang members in the United States, helped transfer the problem of violent street gangs from the United States to Central America’s northern triangle. Less tangibly, these new guidelines also signal to immigration and border agents to be even more hesitant in determining who has established enough “credible fear” to gain asylum. El Salvador dropped from 52 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in 2018 to 36 per 100,000 in 2019. Levels of Violence Crime and violence in Central America have multiple drivers, but none appears more responsible for the dramatic increase in violence than the illegal drug trade. We have become a benchmark in security matters in the region,” the Minister of Justice and Public Security, Rogelio Rivas, highlighted on Twitter. Recently, the number of extrajudicial killings (illegal government-sponsored executions) of minors has risen dramatically, from 447 in 2009 to 802 in 2010 and 1068 in 2011. Tue 11 Feb 2020 12.06 EST 1,704 More than two-thirds of the migrants fleeing Central America’s northern triangle countries – Guatemala, Honduras and El … Transnational gangs or maras have proliferated in the wake of decades of civil war and are largely responsible for a per capita death rate that rivals that in Syria. NRC works to protect the rights of displaced and vulnerable persons during crisis. Violence in Central America. Activists and media have been reporting on the situation for years. Gang warfare and violence have transformed parts of Central America into some of the most dangerous places on earth. and Violence in Central America (2010), which was produced by a team led by Bernice van Bronkhorst and Gabriel Demombynes and comprised, David Varela, Milena Sanchezde Boado, Lorena Cohan, Facundo Cuevas, Diana Hincapie, Lars Christian Moller, Tirza Rivera-Cira (all World Bank), and Abby Cordova Guillen (Vanderbilt University), Jeffrey Miron (Harvard University), Tom Boerman and Lainie … But pre-existing turf wars, coupled with growing scarcity of resources and accelerating fragmentation in some criminal groups, have entailed ongoing – if not intensified – clashes among … Direct threats from criminal gangs have led to the closure of schools or cancellation of classes. According to the Honduran police, 2,322 murders were registered as of mid-August 2019, and in the same period of 2020 there were 1,934, in a population of 9.3 million inhabitants. In these areas, murders are reported every day, while extortion puts every small business owner at risk in some neighbourhoods. Contrary to Honduras and Guatemala, El Salvador has not seen a spike in criminal violence. The Observatory of Violence at the National Autonomous University of Honduras estimated that at least one woman was murdered every 17 hours. According to displaced people’s testimonies, internal displacement is often the starting point for a series of journeys with no end and no return in sight. Criminal gangs exert heavy territorial control in urban areas in Central America, where poverty is rampant. Central America's spiraling wave of crime and violence is threatening the region's prosperity as countries face huge economic and human losses as … This violence has also generated a marked upsurge in forced displacement within countries, across the region and northwards into the United States and Mexico. Photo: Ana Karina Delgado Diaz/NRC, In one of Honduras' most dangerous neighbourhoods, children stop going to school after receiving threats from criminal gangs. Using a novel identification strategy, this paper provides the first econometric evidence for this hypothesis from the case of El Salvador. NRC.NO/NORCAP. Die Druckversion dieses Lehrbuchs hat ISBN: 9783319897851, 3319897853. More recently, high levels of armed violence and organised crime in Central America and Mexico have seen thousands of disappearances. Mudslides have buried whole communities and over 120,000 people have been forced to evacuate their homes across Central America, where brutal gang violence and persecution had already forced nearly 1 million people to flee. The physical distance between countries of origin and places of international protection poses a series of difficulties and extreme risks for those embarking on a journey to safety. Wikimedia Commons has media … In recent years, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala (known as the Northern Triangle) have experienced a dramatic escalation in organized crime by gangs, called maras. The region’s homicide rate (33 murders per 100,000 people in 2016) is over five times the global rate, with recent figures in Honduras and El Salvador reaching unprecedented levels in Latin America, if not the world. Guatemala continues to accompany Honduras with high levels of homicides, while El Salvador maintains a substantial reduction, which specialists attribute to actions taken by the government of Nayib Bukele. When compared with the size of the overall population, the number of deaths in acts of “violence against civilians” listed by ACLED offers a rough idea of how intense a country’s violence is. Costa Rica has registered 342 homicides so far in 2020, according to data from the statistics office of the Judicial Investigation Police (OIJ). Central Americans are the primary targets of violence and threats of violence by MS-13. The violence currently devastating Central America involves multiple actors competing with each other to establish a sort of tribal control over resources or territory, relying heavily on the use of armed threats, extortion and retaliation against communities. The U.S. government is struggling to respond to another large wave of migrants fleeing poverty, violence, and corruption in the Central American region. Gangs that murder, extort and assault have terrorized the populations of the main cities of the countries of the Northern Triangle of Central America — Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras — for decades, many times with the complicity of the police. Our youth programming takes a holistic approach, engaging communities, local partners and governments to … The level of violence in Central America is not new. Since 2014, children and families have fled from rampant gang violence, including the recruitment of children and other forms of persecution perpetrated in Central America, including widespread violence against women. Three of the deadliest 12 countries are in Central and South America. Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang. Costa Rica has a population of 5.1 million people. The plan includes control of prisons, cutting off communication abroad for gang leaders, increasing the operation of the National Civil Police with the support of the army, and combating extortion. In three nations El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crime rates are among the top five in Latin America. Many Central Americans are refugees who like Syrians, are fleeing for their lives. Desperate Central American families fleeing violence are denied their right to protection and increasingly turned back to insecurity by military forces, barbed wires and walls. So far this year, Honduras has registered “24 multiple homicides (in which) more than 80 people have lost their lives,” said Migdonia Ayestas, director of the Observatory on Violence at the National University. Violence has different manifestations and in the countryside, structural violence violates the right of … While economic incentives are still a push fa… That figure was well below the final homicide tally for 2018 (585), which itself marked a reduction from a record-breaking 2017 (603). The countries of Central America’s Northern Triangle—El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras— face challenges ranging from some of the world’s highest homicide rates, rampant extortion, communities controlled by youth gangs, domestic violence, impunity for most crimes, as well as economic despair and lack of opportunity. Central America’s Northern Triangle – encompassing El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras – is one of the most violent regions in the world outside of a warzone. Noe LEIVA / AFP August 24, 2020 August 24, 2020. Read more about us. Retrouvez Politics and Violence in Central America and the Caribbean et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. View of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, looking north from Plaza España in the Lomas del Guijarro neighborhood. Violent crime in Central America—particularly in the "northern triangle" of Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala—is reaching breathtaking levels. Martinez’s most recent book is ‘A History of Violence: Living and Dying in Central America’.His first book ‘The Beast’ followed the harsh journey of Central American immigrants on the ‘Death Train’ (El tren de la muerte) to the United States. Over 90 per cent of NRC’s income is channelled to our work with people forced to flee. Despite the recent progress to address displacement, there is no legal framework or any public policy in any of these countries that specifically focus on protecting and assisting displaced populations. In 2011, Honduras was dubbed the "murder capital of the world". A total of 667,000 people have been internally displaced in these three countries. But the current flow is different. Mudslides have buried whole communities and over 120,000 people have been forced to evacuate their homes across Central America, where brutal gang violence and persecution had already forced nearly 1 million people to flee. It arrives from Houston, Texas, carrying Honduran passengers who risked everything to go to the US, but who have been sent back to a life amid violence and poverty. Guatemala maintains similar figures to those of Honduras, with 1,909 homicides from January to July 2020, while in 2019 they reached 2,805, among a population of more than 17 million inhabitants. Because of a significant flow of people crossing borders and seeking international protection, the humanitarian crises of Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador have acquired a regional dimension. These situations increase the risk of trafficking, extortion, forced labour, sexual violence and other abuses. The corpses in bags and under sheets reappeared on the streets of the Honduran capital, marking a spike in violence that affects northern Central America after a truce due to isolation to contain COVID-19 infections. We have redirected you to a site for your country, if this was not correct, please use the link to go back. The photo is from the reception centre at the airport, Centro de atencion al migrante returnado. Despite eliminating the requirement for a negative coronavirus test and opening its airports to the world, Costa Rica welcomed just…, Happy Tuesday from The Tico Times! Central America registered more than 2,200 femicides between 2018 and August 2019 and in 2020. The World Bank noted in 2011 that drug trafficking constitutes “the main single factor behind rising levels of violence in the . More recently, high levels of armed violence and organised crime in Central America and Mexico have seen thousands of disappearances. The corpses in bags and under sheets reappeared on the streets of the … As of May, 37,000 Guatemalans had been detained in the US for 2019, the highest percentage of Central American migrants. Central America is currently facing a growing and uncontrollable issue of violence and corruption. The violence currently devastating Central America involves multiple actors competing with each other to establish a sort of tribal control over resources or territory, relying heavily on the use of armed threats, extortion and retaliation against communities. The neighbourhood was controlled by a criminal gang who did not allow the children in the area to go to school. Many flee their homes because of fear. We believe young people in even the poorest, most violent neighborhoods have the power to change their lives and communities. With transformational vocational training and education programs, youth will stay, thrive and transform their communities. Government policies, particularly mobility restrictions and border shutdowns, contributed to lowering levels of violence in some Central American countries, as did some gangs’ decisions to forgive protection payments. Violence, Development, and Migration Waves: Evidence from Central American Child Migrant Apprehensions Abstract A recent surge in child migration to the United States from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala has occurred in the context of high rates of regional violence. A woman told NRC that after a couple of days travelling from Honduras to the US, she was ordered to get into an ice-cold container on a truck with many other people. The figure is in-line with 2019, when 339 homicides occurred over the same span. War and conflict displace millions across the world, but in Central America, people flee violence, threats and organised crime. In recent years, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala (known as the Northern Triangle) have experienced a dramatic escalation in organized crime by gangs, called maras. citizen security and subvert government authority in parts of Central America. The Power of Memory and Violence in Central America von Rachel Hatcher und Verleger Palgrave Macmillan. Gang-related violence has been particularly acute in El Salvador, Honduras, and urban areas in Guatemala, contributing to some of the highest homicide rates in the world. The precise number in Mexico is hotly disputed. No way to safety for people fleeing extreme violence in Central America’s Northern Triangle Press Release 12 May 2017. In the years following the transitions from authoritarianism to democracy, crime and violence have become major problems in … In these areas, murders are reported every day, while extortion puts every small business owner at risk in some neighbourhoods. 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